10 Principles to Reduce Casting Defects

In the production process, foundry enterprises inevitably encounter casting defects such as shrinkage, bubbles, segregation, etc. This will result in low casting yield, and re-reflow production faces a lot of manpower and power consumption. How to reduce casting defects is a problem that has always been concerned by casting professionals.

For the problem of reducing casting defects, John Campbell, a professor from the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom,  have experienced many battles and has unique insights on reducing casting defects. As early as 2001, Li Dianzhong, a researcher at the Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, carried out the organization simulation and process design of the thermal processing process, which was completed under the guidance of Professor John Campbell.

Hope the list of ten guidelines for reducing casting defects by international foundry master John Campbell is helpful to colleagues in the foundry industry.

1. Good castings start from high-quality smelting

We must prepare, inspect and process the smelting process before pouring the castings. If required, the lowest acceptable standard can be used. However, a better option is to prepare and adopt a smelting plan that is close to zero defects.

2. Avoid turbulent inclusions on the free liquid surface

This requires avoiding excessively high flow velocity at the front free surface (meniscus). For most metals, the maximum flow rate should be 0.5m/s. Meanwhile, for closed gating systems or thin-walled parts, the maximum flow rate will be increased appropriately. This requirement also means that the drop height of the molten metal cannot exceed the critical value of the “static drop” height.


3. Avoid laminar inclusions of surface condensate in molten metal

This requires that during the entire filling process, there should be no front end of any metal flow to stop the flow in advance. The liquid metal meniscus in the early stage of filling must be kept in a movable state, and not affected by the thickening of the surface condensate, which will become part of the casting. Thereupon, to achieve this effect, the front end of the molten metal can be designed to continuously expand. In practice, only the “uphill” ante bet can achieve a continuous ascent process. (For example, in gravity casting, flow upwards from the bottom of the sprue). This means: bottom injection gating system; no “downhill” form of molten metal falling or slipping, no large-area horizontal flow and no front-end flow stop of molten metal due to dumping or waterfall flow.


4. Avoid air pockets

Avoid air bubbles generated by the pouring system from entering the cavity. It can be achieved by the following methods: reasonable design of stepped sprue cups; reasonable design of straight runners to fill up quickly; reasonable use of “dams”; avoid using “well” or other open gating systems; use small cross-section runners or the sprue uses ceramic filters near the junction of the runner; uses a degassing device; do not interrupt the pouring process.


5. Avoid sand core pores

Avoid the bubbles generated by the sand core or sand mold from entering the molten metal in the cavity. The sand core must ensure a very low air content, or use proper exhaust to prevent the sand core pores. Unless you can ensure complete drying, you can not use clay-based sand core or mold repair glue.

6. Avoid shrinkage

Due to the influence of convection and the unstable pressure gradient, castings with thick and large cross-sections cannot achieve upward feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to follow all the feeding rules to ensure a good feeding design. At the same time, use computer simulation technology for verification, and actually cast samples. Control the flash level at the junction of the sand mold and the sand core, the thickness of the mold coating (if any), and the alloy and mold temperature.


7. Avoid convection

Convection hazards are related to the setting time. Both thin-walled and thick-walled castings are not affected by convection hazards. For medium-thickness castings: reduce convection hazards through casting structure or technology; avoid upward feeding; turn over after pouring.


8. Reduce deflection

Prevent segregation and control it within the standard range, or the area allowed by the customer to exceed the limit. If possible, try to avoid channel segregation.


9. Reduce residual stress

Do not quench the light alloy with water (cold water or hot water) after solution treatment. If the casting stress does not seem large, polymer quenching media or forced air quenching can be used.


10. Given reference point

We must give all castings a positioning datum point for dimensional inspection and processing.


Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, produces top quantity ductile iron castings. If you are interested in our casting fitting, please send us a drawing file, and feel free to get a quite quote.

JM water to air heat exchanger

The History and Development of Heat Exchangers

  •  History and development

Plate heat exchangers appeared in the 1920s and mainly in the food industry. The heat exchanger made of plate instead of tube has compact structure and good heat transfer effect. Therefore, it has gradually developed into various forms.

In the early 1930s,

Sweden made the spiral plate heat exchanger for the first time. Then the British used brazing to produce a plate-fin heat exchanger made of copper and its alloy materials. And it usually appeared in the heat dissipation of aircraft engines.

In 1926,

the British Alston Chun used the indoor return air and outdoor fresh air which is positively intertwined. Due to the temperature difference and water vapor partial pressure difference between the airflows on both sides of the flat partition, simultaneous heat and mass transfer between the two air streams, causing a total heat exchange process. Through heat exchange to achieve indoor and outdoor air circulation, built-in blower and exhaust fan. The two-way equal amount takes place of the built-in blower and exhaust fan. Thus suppress the change of room temperature and keep enough fresh air indoors.

At the end of the 1930s,

Sweden produced the first plate and shell heat exchanger for pulp mills. During this period, in order to solve the heat exchange problem of strong corrosive media, people began to pay attention to heat exchangers made of new materials.

Around the 1960s,

due to the rapid development of space technology and cutting-edge science, there is an urgent need for various high-efficiency and compact heat exchangers. Coupled with the development of stamping, brazing and sealing technologies, the heat exchanger manufacturing process was further improved. This has promoted the vigorous development and wide application of compact plate heat exchangers.

Since the 1960s,

in order to meet the needs of heat exchange and energy saving under high temperature and high pressure conditions, typical shell and tube heat exchangers have also been further developed.

In the mid-1970s,

heat pipe heat exchangers appeared on the basis of research and development of heat pipes, so as to strengthen heat transfer.

heating part

  • Heat exchangers fall into three types according to different heat transfer methods.

1. Hybrid type

Hybrid heat exchanger is a heat exchanger that exchanges heat through direct contact and mixing of cold and hot fluids. Since the two fluids must separate in time after mixing and heat exchange. This type of heat exchanger is suitable for heat exchange between gas and liquid.

For example, in the cooling water towers in chemical plants and power plants. we usually spray hot water from top to bottom, while suck cold air from bottom to top. On the surface of the water film of the filling or the surface of droplets and water drop, hot water and cold air contact with each other for heat exchange. Then, the hot water is cooled, the cold air is heated, and then separated in time by the density difference between the two fluids.

2. Recuperative type

The cold and hot fluids of the recuperative heat exchanger are separated by solid partition walls and exchange heat through the partition wall. Therefore, it is also called surface heat exchanger. This type of heat exchanger is the most popular one.

3. Regenerative type

Regenerative heat exchanger is a heat exchanger that uses cold and hot fluid to alternately flow through the surface of the regenerator (filler) to exchange heat. For instance, the regenerator for preheating air under the coke oven. This type of heat exchanger is suitable for recovering and utilizing the heat of high-temperature exhaust gas.


Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, produces top quantity heat exchangers. If you are interested in our casting fitting, please feel free to get a quite quote.

When was Cast Iron Invented?

The Cast iron was invented by the Chinese in the 4th century BC.

China had begun to use blast furnaces to cast iron in at least the 4th century BC. Meanwhile Europe did not have such similar technology in the 7th century. The highly developed cast bronze during the Shang and Zhou dynasties provided the premise for the invention of cast iron technology. The development of the casting industry manifested as the increase in production capacity. In the meantime, the strengthening of fossil fuel preparation, furnace building, and model manufacturing technology also give evidence to it.

The first iron castings were similar in shape to similar bronze castings.

Early cast irons were white iron with high carbon and low silicon, brittle and hard, and easy to break. With the development of agricultural production, ductile cast iron occurred in the early stage of the Warring States period. As a result, the production tools can be made by cast iron. Through decarburization and graphitization heat treatment, we can obtain black and white core ductile cast iron with incomplete decarburization respectively. After the middle Warring States period, cast iron tools gradually replaced other tools, such as wood, stone and copper. Therefore, cast iron tools became the main production tools. The unearthed objects included shovel, sickle, adze, axe, plow, shackle, chisel, etc.

Because of the large demand for ironware, cast iron also contributed to the invention of Tiefan (cast iron metal mold).

In 1953, Tiefan used to cast iron axe, sickle and vehicles was unearthed from the Casting Site in Xinglong, Hebei. These iron castings have uniform wall thickness, reasonable structure, uniform shape and casting outline. At the same time, some iron mold can cast two objects at a time. This shows that casting iron technology has reached a fairly high level during this period.

Iron castings was widely used as farm tools in the late feudal society.

In the 10th century, it was possible to cast extra-large iron castings weighing 50 tons. After the Five Dynasties, iron buildings increased, such as the iron tower of the Northern Song Dynasty in Dangyang, Hubei. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, the iron in Hunan, Guangdong, Hubei, Fujian was known for its excellent quality. Furthermore, iron smelting production developed rapidly. Foshan, Guangdong has become a well-known smelting and casting center. The iron pots are exported to Southeast Asia, and traditional cast iron techniques such as clay casting and casting pots are still used in modern times.

Cast iron is an important invention of the working people in ancient China. Cast iron played a major role in the development of Chinese civilization and had a considerable impact on later generations.

Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, produces top quantity ductile iron castings. If you are interested in our casting fitting, please send us a drawing file, and feel free to get a quite quote.

Diagnosis Method of Hydraulic System Failure of Forklift

The hydraulic system is the core of the manual hydraulic forklift. In that way, if there is a malfunction in daily use, how should we check and diagnose it. Today, I will introduce you to three basic methods.

1. Visual inspection method

For some relatively simple faults, we can inspect parts by means of sight, hand model, ear hearing and smell.

For example, visual inspection can find faults such as cracks, oil leakage, loosening and deformation. In order that parts can be repaired or replaced in time. Holding oil pipes (especially rubber pipes) by hand, there will be vibration when pressure oil flows through; but there is no such phenomenon when there is no oil flow or the pressure is too low.

In addition, hand touch can also be used to judge whether the lubrication of hydraulic components with mechanical transmission parts is good.

Feel the temperature change of the component housing with your hands. If the component housing is overheat, it means that the lubrication is poor. Ear listening can determine the point of failure and the degree of damage.

For example, hydraulic pump suction, overflow valve opening and component issuance will produce abnormal sounds such as water impact or “water hammer sound”. Some parts will emit peculiar smell due to overheating, poor lubrication and cavitation. We can use nose sniffing in this condition.


2. Replacement diagnosis

We can use this method when there is a lack of diagnostic equipment at the maintenance site, or the components are more precise and not suitable for disassembly. Firstly,  remove the component suspected to be malfunctioning.

Secondly, replace it with a new one or another component of the same model that works normally on the machine for testing.

And then the diagnosis can be made by seeing whether the fault can be eliminated. Although this method is restricted by the structure, on-site component storage or disassembly inconvenience and other factors.

Besides, it may be troublesome to operate. However, it is convenient to use this method for components that are small in size and easy to disassemble, such as balance valves, overflow valves, and one-way valves.

The replacement diagnosis method can avoid the performance degradation of hydraulic components due to blind disassembly.

If you do not use this method for the above failures, and directly remove the suspicious main safety valve and disassemble it.  Its performance may be affected after re-installation, if there is no problem with it.

3. Instrument inspection method

The instrument inspection method is to judge the fault of the system by measuring the pressure, flow and oil temperature of each part of the hydraulic system.

In general on-site inspections, the failure of the hydraulic system is often manifested as insufficient pressure, which is easy to detect. While the detection of flow is more difficult. The size of the flow can only be roughly judged by the speed of the actuator. Therefore, in-field testing, we can use more methods to detect system pressure.

Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, produces top quantity forklift parts. If you are interested in our casting fitting, please send us a drawing file, and feel free to get a quite quote.

How to Choose, Install and Maintain Ductile Iron Pipe

How to Choose, Install and Maintain Ductile Iron Pipe

Firstly, let’s see why choose ductile iron pipe.

In building construction, especially the construction of urban water supply pipeline network, the pipeline products used require high strength, high toughness, strong corrosion resistance and comprehensive cost of construction and installation. From these perspectives, ductile iron pipe is undoubtedly the best choice. From the production process of ductile iron pipe to the final construction and installation, it meets our requirements. No matter how complicate the project, choosing ductile iron pipe as the main pipeline product is definitely a wise choice with the highest cost performance in the long term.

Secondly, the installation of ductile iron pipe mainly includes the following steps:

1. Site selection

Select the installation route of the ductile pipe from the perspective of soil quality and nearby pipelines, and form construction drawings. Special attention should be paid to avoid some corrosive and unsafe installation routes.

2. Pipe laying

Use Large-scale equipment such as excavators and hoisting machines in the pipe laying process. At the same time, a 10-meter ductile pipe should arrange 2 to 3 workers based on experience. The rubber ring should be placed in the socket groove and compacted by hand.

3. Determine the distance of the pipeline

The key of this step is to cut off the iron pipe if it’s too long. And process the spigot end into a groove shape according to the construction angle to facilitate application.

4. Tube body measurement

Through the measurement of the tube body, to demtermine the straight line space and the corner space formed by the installation radian, vacancy, and transfer. Thus in order to achieve stability and avoid displacement.

5. Positioning marking

The purpose of the positioning marking is to achieve that the fixed pipe and moving pipe axis lines are on the same straight line as a wheelbase. This step is to ensure the quality and speed of the installation. Also it helps to prevent the pipeline apron from falling off and affecting the quality and progress.

6. The installation of pipes should be flat, and the pipes should be in a straight line. Besides, be careful of inclination angle.

7. Align the interface of the connecting pipe with the socket. If the insertion resistance is too large, do not insert it forcibly to prevent the rubber ring from twisting.

8. When pipeline installation and laying works are interrupted, use its cap to close the pipe opening to prevent dirt, sand and other debris from entering the pipeline.

9. Cover the middle part of each pipe with soil before the pressure test.

Then, how to maintain ductile iron pipes? Let me introduce to you briefly.

The maintenance of the ductile tube should always start from its selection. Before the project starts, we should perform a visual inspection of the parts, such as pipe fittings, aprons, elbows, etc., so as to avoid using defective parts.

The second point of maintenance is to check and acceptance check. We should pay attention to the socket apron lower tube (pipe) that affects the long-term stable operation, and strive to have no debris in the socket in these aspects. The rubber ring has been hit by a rubber hammer without warping and twisting, and is evenly stuck in the groove.

During the maintenance process of ductile iron pipes, since the axis of the moving pipe is deeply buried in the ground, be careful when there is an inclination angle. If the resistance is too large, do not excavate forcibly to prevent the rubber ring from twisting. The maintenance of ductile tubes in winter also needs preheating with hot water to reduce the hardness and install quickly.

In addition, if the quality of the ductile iron pipes used in the project absolutely meets the national standards, then we should pay attention to the apron, welding, etc. AC and DC. As long as the ductile cast iron pipes are applied properly and the product quality is excellent, it can reduce unnecessary troubles in installation projects. Also, as a new type of pipe material, its future maintenance work is relatively easy.

Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, provides quality duction iron pipe, brass pipe in a big production, OEM service is available, if you are looking for a casting supplier, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Of course, you are welcome to visit our casting factory in China.

Features and Process Application of Sand Casting

Features and Process Application of Sand Casting

Sand casting uses clay-bonded sand as a modeling material to produce castings. It is a process with a long history and  most widely used.

Yide Casting automatic sand casting from China

Yide Casting automatic sand casting

Sand casting has a long history, dating back thousands of years. In terms of its scope of application, sand casting is everywhere in the world.

It is worth noting that, with the vigorous development of various chemically bonded sands today, green sand is still the most important modeling material. Its wide application range and high consumption are beyond comparison with any other modeling materials. According to reports, more than 80% iron castings in the US use green sand, and more than 73% in Japan.

The extremely strong ability to adapt to modeling conditions is also a major feature of green sand. In 1890, the jolt squeeze moulding machine came out. Green sand, which has been used for manual moulding for a long time, was extremely successful in machine moulding. This furthermore laid the foundation for the mechanization and automation of subsequent moulding operations. The modern high-pressure moulding, jet-pressure moulding, air-punching moulding, static pressure moulding and non-shock vacuum pressure moulding and other new technologies are also based on the use of green sand.

The implementation of various new processes has made green sand more important in casting production. Besides, green sand is also facing many new problems. This urges us to continuously strengthen the research and understanding of the green sand.

Nowadays, with the rapid development of science and technology, the demand for castings in various industrial sectors is increasing. At the same time, the requirements for the quality of castings are getting higher and higher. In modern foundries, the productivity of molding equipment has increased to an unprecedented level. If the performance of the molding sand cannot be fully adapted to the specific production conditions, or the stability and consistency of the molding sand cannot be effectively controlled, it will not take long for the foundry to fail.

With the development of science and technology, foundries that use green sand generally have sand treatment systems suitable for their specific conditions, including old sand treatment, new sand and auxiliary materials, sand mixing, and sand performance monitoring.

There are many constantly changing factors in the green sand system. For example, if one or several key properties cannot be kept within the control range, problems may occur in production. An effective sand processing system should be able to monitor the performance of the sand. At the same time, if there is any problem, the system should be able to correct it in time.

Due to the different arrangements of sand treatment systems and equipment used in various foundries, it is impossible to draw up a set of general control methods. Here, I intend to put forward some control points that have been widely recognized. After carefully understanding these points, each foundry can determine feasible control methods according to its own specific conditions. Moreover, with the advancement of technology and the actual capacity of the factory (including personnel and funds), the control of the molding sand system must be continuously improved.

How to Choose Forklift Parts?

How to Choose Forklift Parts?

1. Check whether the part numbers and specifications of forklift parts are appropriate

Most forklift parts have a specific part number and technical parameters. When purchasing electrical system accessories, pay attention to checking whether the voltage and power are consistent with those of the replaced accessories. When purchasing forklift engine drive belts, pay attention to the model and length width.

2. See if the trademark logo on the outer packaging is complete

The outer packaging quality of high-quality forklift parts is relatively good. At the same time, the writing on the packaging box is clear, and the overprint color is bright. Some important components, such as generators, starters, hydraulic pumps, etc., are also equipped with instruction manuals, certificates and inspectors’ stamps to guide users in the correct use of maintenance methods. Therefore, you should carefully recognize when purchasing to prevent buying fake forklift parts.

3. See if the shape and size of forklift parts are deformed

Some forklift parts are prone to deformation due to improper manufacturing, logistics, and storage.

  • You can roll the shaft part along to see if there is light leakage at the joint between the parts. And roll the glass plate to judge whether it is bent.
  • When choosing the forklift clutch driven disc steel plate or friction plate, you can hold the plate close to your eyes to observe whether it is warped.
  • When choosing seals such as forklift oil seals, the end surface of the oil seal with a frame should be in a perfect circle, which can be fitted to the plate glass without warpage. And the outer edge of the non-skeleton oil seal should be straight. You can hold it by hand to deform it to see if it is able to return to its original shape after letting go.
  • You should also use professional measuring tools to check the geometric dimensions and shapes when purchasing gaskets.

4. Check whether the joint parts of the forklift parts are flat

In the process of handling and storage of forklift parts, burrs, indentations, breakages or cracks may occur at the joints due to vibration and bumps, which may affect the installation and use of forklift parts. Therefore, you should check the joint parts during purchase or inspection.

5. Check for rust on the surface of forklift parts

The surface of qualified parts has both a certain precisionand a bright finish. The more important parts are, the higher the precision, and the stricter the rust and corrosion protection of the packaging. You should replace the parts if they are found to have rust spots, mildew spots, cracked rubber parts, loss of elasticity, or obvious cutting tool lines on the surface.

6. Check whether the protective surface of forklift parts is intact

Most accessories are coated with a protective layer at the factory. For example, piston pins and bearing bushes are generally protected by paraffin, while the surfaces of forklift piston rings and cylinder liners are coated with anti-rust oil and wrapped in wrapping paper. The valves and pistons of forklift engine parts are soaked in anti-rust oil and sealed in plastic bags. You should return or exchange the parts if the sealing sleeve of the sealed bag is broke, the packing paper is missing, or the rust preventive oil or paraffin is lost.

7. See if the glued parts are loose

The forklift parts formed by two or more parts are formed by pressing, bonding or welding. No looseness between the accessories is allowed. For example, the forklift oil pump plunger and the adjusting arm are assembled by pressing; the forklift clutch pressure plate and the clutch plate are riveted; the forklift friction plate and the steel plate are riveted or glued; the filter core frame and filter paper of various filter elements are glued; the circuit wires of electrical equipment are welded. You should replace the parts if find and looseness during purchase.

8. See if the rotating parts are flexible

When purchasing a forklift oil pump and other rotating parts assembly, turn the pump shaft by hand to feel flexible and free from jamming. When purchasing a needle roller bearing, support the inner ring of the bearing with one hand and rotate the outer ring with the other hand. The outer ring should be able to rotate quickly and freely, and then gradually stop. If the rotating parts do not rotate properly, it means that the internal rust or shape has been deformed, which will affect the use, and should be returned or replaced.

9. See if there are any missing parts in each assembly

For high-quality forklift assembly components such as the clutch or transmission of the forklift transmission system, the parts and accessories must be complete and intact to ensure the smooth and normal operation of the assembly. If individual small parts are missing, the assembly parts will not work or even be scrapped.

10. See if the assembly marks of forklift parts are clear

In order to ensure that the assembly relationship of other mating parts meets the technical requirements, assembly marks are engraved on the surface of some parts (such as timing gears). If there is no mark or the mark is fuzzy and unrecognizable, it will bring great difficulties to the assembly work, or even bring out wrong installation.

11. Check whether the mating surface is worn or not

If there are signs of wear on the mating surface of the accessories, or the painted accessories find old paint after removing the paint on the surface, it is mostly disguised as scrap parts. In this case, you can directly request a replacement.

12. Check whether the surface hardness of forklift parts meets the standard

The surface hardness of each mating part has specified requirements. After confirming the purchase and negotiating with the merchant, the stubble of the hacksaw blade can be used to test scratch. If there is no scratch when scratching, it means that the hardness is high. If there are obvious marks after scratching, it means that the hardness is low. However, it is necessary to pay attention not to damage the working surface of the accessories during the test.

How to Clean Cast Forklift Parts

The usability of cast forklifts is now more extensive. Manual loading and unloading of goods have become a thing of the past. Casting forklifts not only bring good work efficiency to workers, but also reduce labor costs for enterprises. So the iron cast forklifts play an important role in the modern industry.

In fact, many parts of forklifts need to be maintained, not only the vehicle body, but also the system. Only in this way can the forklift maintain good working performance. When doing maintenance for the forklift, you need to check the different types of accessories to see if they are aging.

The maintenance of forklift cast parts is very important. If an abnormal situation is found in a certain position of the forklift, it should be checked in time to avoid affecting the work quality. When necessary, you need to contact a professional forklift maintenance master to avoid bigger problems.

So, today we will introduce several methods for cleaning forklift parts

Precautions for cleaning forklift parts: The cleaning method should be reasonably selected according to the cause and characteristics of the oil pollution to ensure the normal use of the parts, avoid corrosion or damage to the parts, and prevent environmental pollution and subsequent contamination of the parts.

1. Vibration cleaning

Place the parts to be cleaned on the cleaning basket or cleaning rack of the vibrating washer and immerse them in the cleaning liquid. The vibration generated by the cleaning machine simulates the manual rinsing action and the chemical action of the cleaning liquid to remove oil stains.

2. Ultrasonic cleaning

Rely on the chemical action of the cleaning liquid and the ultrasonic oscillation introduced into the cleaning liquid to remove oil stains.

3. Spray washing

Spray a cleaning fluid with a certain pressure and temperature on the surface of the parts to remove oil stains. This method has good cleaning effect and high production efficiency, but the equipment is complicated, and it is suitable for cleaning parts with less complicated shapes and serious grease stains on the surface.

4. Scrub

Put the parts in a container filled with diesel, kerosene or other cleaning fluid, scrub with cotton yarn or scrub with a brush. This method is easy to operate, simple in equipment, but low in efficiency, and is suitable for a single small batch of small parts. In general, gasoline is not suitable for use because of its fat-soluble properties, which will harm people’s health and easily cause fires.

5. Boil and wash

Put the prepared solution and the parts to be cleaned into a cleaning pool of appropriate size welded with steel plates, heat it to 80~90℃ with an under-pool stove, and cook for 3~5min.

Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, produces top quality forklift iron cast fitting, if you are interested in our casting fitting, please send us a drawing file, and feel free to get a quite quote.

Influencing Factors of Foundry Sand Casting Cost

There are many factors that affect the cost of sand casting. Here, we have listed some of the main factors, and hope that this information can help our casting customers.

1. Cost of pig iron and scrap steel

Pig iron and scrap steel is the main material of cast iron and cast steel, so their price will directly affect the cost of sand casting.

2. Alloy cost

If your casting parts need to add alloys such as chromium, nickel, copper and molybdenum, then their prices will be more expensive than ordinary metal grades.

3. Casting process

Different casting processes will greatly affect the cost of castings. The cheapest is the molding sand casting process, then resin sand casting is more expensive, and the pre-coated resin sand casting process (eg hot shell and core molding process) will be the most expensive process.

4. Resin cost

As for the casting process with resin sand and pre-coated resin sand, the price of resin will affect the cost of the casting, but it will not affect the sand casting process.

5. The size and weight of the casting

As for small castings weighing less than 1 kg, the price per kg will be much more expensive than large castings because they will lead to more production time and grinding works.

6. Sand core

If your casting parts need to use sand cores in the production, then its cost will be higher than that without sand cores. This is because the sand cores need to be produced separately.

7. other factors

In addition, there are many other factors. The annual demand is greater, then their prices will decrease. Simpler sand castings will be cheaper. Material grades will affect difficult production and heat treatment, so materials with higher grades are more expensive. Higher requirements summing up surface quality and casting defects will lead to higher production costs because of the scrap rate. In addition, there are other factors such as processing costs, painting and packaging costs.

Therefore, they are many factors that affect the cost of sand casting. Therefore, it is inaccurate to estimate its cost only through a calculation formula. This foundry needs to consider these factors based on production experience and current prices of materials and labor.

Causes and solutions of casting deformation

Causes and solutions of casting deformation

Deformation means the mismatch between the whole or part of the casting and the design. Then what are the causes of deformation, and what are the solutions to deformation? Today, Yide Casting will introduce the causes and solutions for you.

Causes of deformation:

1. Uneven shrinkage caused by the unreasonable design of casting;

2. The mold temperature is too high, with insufficient hardness, and the cooling time is not enough.

3. The mold shell design is not reasonable;

4. There is mucosa on the casting;

5. The temperature difference between different parts of the cavity is relatively large, and the cooling operation is uneven.


Solutions to deformation:

1. Improving the structure of casting, in order to increase the inner wall thickness of the mold shell appropriately;

2. Increasing the cooling time so as to low down the temperature of the mold shell;

3. Adjusting different parts of the mold shell appropriately, especially balance the top part;

4. Cleaning away the mucosa on the casting;

5. Controlling the casting temperature, so as to ensure that the overall temperature in the cavity is balanced.