What Is Iron Casting?

What Is Iron Casting?

What Is Iron Casting?

What Is Iron Casting?

Gray iron is the most common type of iron casting. Its properties are good, making it the preferred material for a wide variety of applications. Its properties include high hardness, tensile strength, compressive strength, fatigue strength, and resistance to corrosion. While this type of iron casting is highly versatile, its disadvantages include low tensile strength and low elongation. It is a great choice for applications that require high tensile strength.

Yide Casting produces medium and heavy castings with sectional sizes up to four inches. It is the only iron foundry to cast the full range of test bar sizes. Inoculated irons are stronger than base iron bars and have a greater scatter of tensile strength values. A six-inch-diameter section at this foundry shows tensile strength values below the SAE line. The tensile strength data on this material are based on the center portion of the 6-in.-pediatric sections.

Gray iron is highly resistant to cracks. Its mechanical properties are related to the percentage of graphite, and the carbon-equivalent value. The cooling rate and eutectic solidification interval play an important role in the tensile strength of gray iron. The section size affects the tensile strength. The ASTM Specification A 48 requires the selection of the test bar. If the gray metal has an elongation value of less than 0.5, it will be stronger. The failure section should be as large as possible.

When choosing an iron casting foundry, it’s important to choose one that processes ductile iron separately from gray iron. The former is more malleable and durable than ductile. However, some foundries process gray and ductile iron from the same charge material. For example, if a foundry was to process internal recycled scrap gray iron, the sulfur would remain in the material. The solution would be to use a reducing agent, such as CaO, to remove the sulfur.

Graphite is another element used in iron casting. Its gray color is a result of a process known as investment casting. The investment-casting process produces pieces with thin walls and is usually used for ductile iron. Centrifugal casting, on the other hand, has the advantage of reducing porosity and sturdiness of the finished part. In addition, the material is also more resistant to corrosion, which is a positive feature for the investment-grade material.

The gray iron found in commercial castings is the most affordable of the two types of iron. This type of iron has a high modulus of elasticity and is suitable for structural components that must be stiff. On the other hand, it is prone to thermal fatigue, so it is not recommended for housing and machinery bases. Its high tensile strength and elasticity to make it the best choice for these applications. It is a great choice for those who want to save money.

Casting Defects – Sand Mold, Metal Casting

Today, I will introduce you to various metal casting defects and pictures found in the manufacturing process of yide casting. These are common sand casting defects on the surface and inside of cast iron and cast steel parts.

1. Blowhole and Pinhole

This is a void defect, which is also divided into pinholes and underground pores. Pinholes are very small holes, some can be seen on the surface. Underground air holes can only be seen after machining or grinding.

After machining or grinding, most underground pores can be found. If the surface is flat, our yide casting can inspect them by ultrasonic flaw detector.

Pinhole defect

2. Sand Burning Defect

This defect includes chemical burns and metal penetration. Usually, you will see excess metal material around the corner. This is because of poor sand. The metal has penetrated into the sand mold.

Sand burning defect

3. Sand Inclusion and Slag Inclusion

These defects are also called scab or black scab. They are inclusion defects. It looks like there is slag inside the metal casting.

Sand inclusion defects

4. Sand Hole Defects

Sand hole is a typical shrinkage defect. After sandblasting or machining, you will see voids. The sand falls from the sand mold, rolls into the liquid metal, and creates blisters.

This is a problem of the sand mold, or the flow rate of the metal is too high. This decfect can be solved by the foundry.

Sand hole defect

5. Cold lap Defect

Also called cold shutdown. This is a crack with rounded edges. The cold lap is due to a lower melting temperature or a poor gate system. This is not just a surface defect. Generally, this location may cause air leakage, and in addition, the material at this location will be of poor quality and therefore may be fragile.

Cold lap defect

6. Flash, Fin and Burrs

The joint flash is also called a casting fin, which is a thin protrusion on the surface of a metal casting. During the cleaning and sanding process, the joint burrs should be removed.

Sharp fins and burrs are similar problems with burrs. In fact, the large flash is a casting problem, the foundry should improve it by modifying the pattern. However, the small fins and burrs are not casting defects, the foundry only needs to grind and remove them.

Flash, Fin and Burrs

7. Mistrun defect

This is an incomplete casting defect, resulting in unfinished casting. The edges of the defect are rounded and smooth.

Mistrun defect

8. Porosity Shrinkage Defect

Shrinkage defects include scattered shrinkage, micro-shrinkage and porosity. For the large porosity on the surface, you can easily see them. However, for the smaller dispersion shrinkage, you can see them after processing. The figure below shows the shrinkage of porosity. The density of the metal is very poor, and many small holes can be seen after processing.

Porosity shrinkage defect

9. Shrinkage Cavities Defect

These are also called shrinkage cavities, which are a serious type of shrinkage defect, and you can easily see these holes on the rough surface of the metal casting. Foundries can improve their gates and ventilation systems, and then can solve these shrinkage problems.

Shrinkage defect

10. Shrinkage Depression

This defect is also a type of shrinkage defect, which looks like a recessed area on the surface of a metal casting. Although this defect is not as serious as shrinkage, it still leads to poor surface quality, and there may be some internal defects, so the foundry should try to solve or improve it.

Shrinkage Depression

11. Elephant skin defects

This is a surface defect that can cause irregularities or wrinkles on the surface. This defect is caused by the temperature difference of the molten metal or poor sand mold.

Elephant skin defects

12.Veins Defect

It is also called rat tail and looks like many small water traces on the surface of a metal casting. Sometimes this is caused by the low temperature of the molten metal or the improper gate control and exhaust system.

Veins Defect

13.Rough surface

A rough surface is also a surface defect. A normal rough surface cannot be considered a defect, but a surface that is too rough and uneven will be a defect.

Rough surface defects

14. Mismatch and displacement defects

This kind of mold defect is caused by the displacement of mold burrs. It will cause the parting line to be misplaced. Near the parting line, the left side may be a few millimeters lower or higher than the other side. The parting line is not a defect, but if the height on the left is different from the height on the right, it will be a casting defect. If there is no special requirement, a mismatch of less than 1mm is allowed. For the sand casting process, no mismatch is impossible.

However, if the mismatch affects the function of the casting, the foundry must control it, grind or machine it to meet the requirements.

Mismatch mold defects


15. Mechanical damage

This is not a casting defect, but a real casting quality problem you may encounter. This is damage during machining or delivery. Workers should pay more attention to this problem.

Mechanical damage defect

16.  Slag Inclusions Defects

This kind of defect is also called foreign inclusions, slag inclusions. Generally, slag is made of molten metal. During the metal melting process, the foundry should thoroughly remove dirt and inclusions, otherwise, these inclusions will be poured into the casting.

Slag inclusion defects

17. Raised Mold Defect

Due to the scattering of the liquid metal, the mold bottle is raised, causing the top of the casting to become higher or thicker than the lower part.

Raised Mold Defect

18. Crack defect

Crack defects usually occur inside metal castings. This defect will reduce the physical properties of the metal casting. There are also cracks on the surface.

Crack defect

19. Abnormal Nodulizing Defect

For many reasons, the spheroidization rate of graphite of ductile cast iron will be affected, resulting in poor spheroidization rate. Through the metallographic microscope, you can hardly see the graphite balls, but you can see many worm-like graphites.

This is a substantive issue. If so, its mechanical properties will not meet the standard requirements, which may cause damage to the cast product during use.

Abnormal Nodulizing Defect

20. Uneven hardness defects

This means that the hardness on the same surface is not uniform. The hardness is not uniform, and some parts may have extremely high hardness. When processing to a harder position, processing will become more difficult. The drill bit may be damaged.

This is a substantive issue. Locations with higher hardness may cool down faster than localized areas.

Uneven hardness

21. Sand Drop Defect

It is also called crushed sand. Some lumps of sand fall from the sand mold, which will result in similarly shaped sand holes or incompleteness. This is a problem of sand molds. The sand mold may not be tight enough.

Sand Drop Defect

22. Deformation problem

This problem will result in excessive flatness and straightness tolerances. For long castings and flat castings with thin walls, this is a very common defect. The reason is the natural deformation of the sand mold or the air during the cooling process. Sometimes, excessive sandblasting may also cause this problem.

Deformation problem

23. Welding Repair Problem

After welding repair, even after mechanical processing or polishing, welding traces are still visible. For unimportant casting surfaces, these marks should be acceptable if the customer allows welding repairs. However, for locations subject to high pressure, or the customer expressly prohibits any welding repairs, these marks will be considered defects.

Welding repair mark

24. Cold Iron Mark

Cast iron can effectively reduce the shrinkage of key parts, so it is very common to use cast iron in cast iron plants. However, the edges of the cold iron can be clearly found by visual inspection. If these marks do not affect the appearance, some customers will not need to grind them. However, customers may require the casting manufacturer to grind them in order to obtain a better surface appearance. Please be clear that these marks should not be considered as casting defects.

Cold Iron Mark

25. Casting chilling defects

It is also called “white iron”. The surface of the casting with this defect will be very white, shiny and smooth. Defective castings are fragile and brittle, so some edges and tips will break during processing. This defect is caused by the low temperature of the sand mold, and it leaves the sand mold prematurely, so the hot iron is quickly cooled. Appropriate annealing heat treatment on them can solve this defect.

Casting chilling defects

26. Massive Free Carbide

On the metallographic photos, you can see many cemented carbides without fish bones. This is a serious defect of cast iron materials and usually occurs in ductile iron. Due to reverse cooling defects and poor inoculation, there will be qualityless carbides, which will lead to brittleness to ductile iron and poor welding performance. High temperature annealing heat treatment can improve its quality.

Massive Free Carbide

27. Cold short or short iron

This defect is also called internal sweating. There are iron beans in the casting. This is because of the unreasonable gate control design, causing some molten iron to suddenly become beans, and then these beans are wrapped in other molten iron. These are surface defects, but if they are located in critical locations, they can cause serious slurry problems.

Cold short iron

28. Stripping Defect

The iron sheet on the surface of the casting is very thin. Two floors. This is because the gating system is unreasonable, resulting in a very thin air layer. This defect is a surface defect, so it can usually be ground off. However, if it is not just on the surface, it should be discarded.

Stripping Defect

29. Cast Iron Graphite Floatation

This defect is a material problem. This is caused by low pouring temperature and high carbon content. This defect is very harmful and can lead to very fragile materials. On the fractured surface, you can see the obvious black surface caused by the defect.

Cast Iron Graphite Floatation

Surface Finish Degree (Smoothness) Comparison Table between Rz, Ra and RMS for Iron and Steel Castings

What standard can be used to express the surface finish or smoothness of steel castings?

The comparison table we made as below is for your reference. You can find the comparison of the new Chinese Ra and Rz standards with the American micron and micron inch Ra in this table. In addition, we have also borrowed from China’s old grading system for your reference. The old grade is still widely used in China. We usually call the downward-pointing triangle “hwar”. However, we usually do not recommend buyers to indicate the old grades of China on the drawings or inquiry sheets. The comparison is for reference only, not as an inspection standard.

This article is from www.yidecasting.com. Please keep this link! For more related articles, please refer to our blog.

China Old Grade China New
China New
USA micron
USA microinch
▽ 1 50 200
▽ 2 25 100
▽ 3 12.5 50
▽ 4 6.3 25 8.00 320
6.30 250
▽ 5 3.2 12.5 5.00 200
4.00 160
3.20 125
▽ 6 1.6 6.3 2.50 100
2.00 80
1.60 63
▽ 7 0.8 6.3 1.25 50
1.00 40
0.80 32
▽ 8 0.4 3.2 0.63 25
0.50 20
0.40 16
▽ 9 0.2 1.6 0.20 12.5
▽ 10 0.1 0.8 0.10


RMS (microinch) RMS
RA (microinch) RA
Grit Size
80 58
2.03 1.47
71 52
1.90 1.32
80 120

Casting flask, Moulding flask, Sand box, Moulding box

Casting flask is also called moulding flask, sand box or moulding box. It is an indispensable tool in the production of sand castings. At the same time, it also plays an important role in the casting process. A suitable sand box can improve the quality of casting and reduce the consumption of molding sand, thereby reducing production costs.

Casting flasks are usually made by welding steel plates. But it can also be made by sand casting process. In other words, the sand box itself can also be a sand casting. For the automatic molding line, the casting flask has a fixed size. Taking the FBO 3 automatic molding line as an example, the size of the flask should be 508 * 610mm.

If the iron foundry does not have a suitable casting flask, then they will have to make some casting flasks for production. There are many types and sizes of sandboxes. The small flask is suitable for the production of small metal castings, and the large flask is suitable for large castings. Their shapes include circles and squares. Sometimes, some reinforcing ribs are welded inside to fix the molding sand. During the casting process, all designs need to be considered to suit production. However, the flask of the automatic molding line cannot be changed. Only packaging boxes used for manual molding and resin sand molding processes can be used.

Generally, unless you want the iron foundry to speed up production, the purchaser of castings does not have to bear the cost of manufacturing the sand box. More flasks can greatly increase productivity.

Yide Machinery casting factory uses FBO automatic molding line to produce iron castings parts for vehicles, cars, trucks, tractors, plow points etc. The following are some casting flasks from Yide Casting.

Introduction of Iron Based Coated Sand Casting

Brief introduction of iron based coated sand casting:

Iron based coated sand casting is a casting production technology. In the 1970s, Chinese foundry workers developed a special casting technology method, which is based on the research of domestic and foreign foundry counterparts, and in combination with China’s national conditions. It is different from sand casting, lost wax casting, V-shape casting, permanent mold casting, shell mold casting, paraffin casting, ceramic casting, steel shot casting and other casting methods. This method uses a metal model, and the cast iron cavity that is close to the shape of the casting as the sand box iron mold. And then the near-shaped iron mold is covered with a layer of 6~10mm of coated sand to form a mold for pouring into a casting.


  • The process of iron based coated sand casting includes:

Machine modeling-checking and closing the box-placing the sprue cup in the lock box-pouring-unpacking the casting-sand cleaning-modeling.


  • Features of iron based coated sand casting:

1. Having the characteristics of sand casting

That is, having a rigid sand mold shell, which makes the sand mold high in overall strength without deformation. At the same time, it has wide adaptability, easy demoulding of castings, reliable positioning and high precision.

2. Having the characteristics of coated sand shell casting.

The modeling is convenient and fast. No matter what the casting sand mold is, the molding can be completed within two or three minutes. The sand density and surface hardness of the mold are guaranteed by the equipment and are always consistent. And do not need to apply any paint. The smooth casting is obtained, and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the casting are improved.

3. Having the characteristics of metal mold casting.

The iron mold has obvious chilling effect during the crystallization process of molten metal. This can refine the grain size of the casting, thereby improving the overall strength of the casting. The presence of sand tires avoids the shortcomings of metal mold casting. Castings will not produce white holes. For iron castings, it can produce various materials in the as-cast state without heat treatment.

4. High precision

The mold composed of iron mold and thin sand tire has high rigidity, small deformation and fast cooling after locking. Meanwhile, the obtained casting has high dimensional accuracy, small machining allowance and compact structure. It is especially suitable for the production of ductile iron. At the same time, the method use the graphitization expansion of ductile iron to self-feed, and produce castings with less and no risers. Thus to obtain high-quality castings. Because the iron mold cools quickly, it is effective for the production of high-grade pearlite substrates. Rod and shaft castings are particularly advantageous.

5. High hardness

Under normal circumstances the hardness of castings produced by iron based coated sand casting is about 20 HB units higher than those produced by ordinary casting methods.

6. Low investment

Using the waste heat of the cast iron mold to solidify the coated sand produced by recycling, not only reduces electricity consumption, but also the casting process presents a closed cycle production state. In the meantime, the production area is small, requiring no sand treatment equipment, low investment and quick results.

7. Reuse of the mould

Due to the chilling of the iron mold, the molding sand will not be overfired. Not only can the molding sand be reused, but also because of the roasting during the pouring process, the molding sand (quartz sand) undergoes a phase change, and the thermal expansion coefficient of the sand is reduced from 15 to 5. Therefore, the old sand produced in the production process can also be recycled, which is in line with the development of circular economy.

8. Low rejection rate

Iron based coated sand casting is particularly suitable for the production of large batches of medium and small castings. If there are few replacements, the overall rejection rate can be reduced to about 3%.

9. Long service life

The service life of the iron mold with sand-coated iron mold can reach more than 10,000 times. However, under the influence of long-term repeated thermal expansion and contraction and the casting environment, additional maintenance is required.

Small Cast Door

Small cast doors are small doors made of cast iron, also called small cast iron doors. Depending on the application, there are many types of cast iron doors. For example, cast doors used on boilers are called ash doors; and cast doors used on stoves, fireplaces and stoves called furnace doors. Small cast doors mean […]

Comparison Table of Stainless Steel Grades

Stainless steel is also called acid-resistant stainless steel. It has good corrosion resistance, is beautiful, does not fade and is easy to clean. Moreover, its service life is very long. Stainless steel castings are widely used in auto parts, household appliances and construction industries.

The following is a comparison table of stainless steel grades provided by China Yide Casting for your reference.

Table 1 (Including Germany)

No type








International standard



austenitic stainless steel


1Cr17Mn6Ni5N 12X17T9AH4 SUS201 201 S20100 30201 A-2
2 1Cr18Mn8Ni5N 12X17T9AH4 X8CrMnNi189 Z15CNM19.08 SUS202 202 S20200 30202 284S16 A-3 2357
3 1Cr18Mn10Ni5Mo3N
4 2Cr13Mn9Ni4 20X13H4T9
5 1Cr17Ni7 09X17H7Ю X12CrNi17.7 Z12CN17.07 SUS301 301 S30100 30301 301S21 14
6 1Cr17Ni8 X12CrNi17.7 SUS301J1
7 1Cr18Ni9 12X18H9 X12CrNi18.8 Z10CN18.09 SUS302 302 S30200 30302 302S25 12 2331
8 Y1Cr18Ni9 X12CrNiS18.8 Z10CNF18.09 SUS303 303 S30300 30303 303S21 17 2346
9 Y1Cr18Ni9Se 12X18H10E SUS303Se 303Se S30323 30303Se 303S41 17
10 1Cr18Ni9Si3 X12CrNiSi18.8 SUS302B 302B S30215 30302B
11 0Cr18Ni9 08X18H10 X5CrNi18.9 Z6CN18.09 SUS304 304 S30400 30304 304S15 11 2332
12 00Cr18Ni10 03X18H11 X2CrNi18.9 Z2CN18.09 SUS304L 304L S30403 30304L 304S12 10
13 0Cr19Ni9N SUS404N1 304N S30451
14 0Cr19Ni10NbN X5CrNiNb18.9 SUS304N2 XM21 S30452
15 00Cr18Ni10N X2CrNiN18.10 Z2CN18.10 SUS304LN 304LN S30453 304S62 2371
16 1Cr18Ni12 12X18H12T X5CrNi19.11 Z8CN18.12 SUS305 305 S30500 30305 305S19 13
17 0Cr18Ni12 8X18H12T、06X18H11 X5CrNi19.11 Z8CN18.12
18 0Cr23Ni13 X7CrNi23.14 SUS309S 309S S30908 30309S
19 0Cr25Ni20 SUS310S 310S S31008 30310S 2361
20 0Cr17Ni12Mo2 08X17H13M2T X5CrNiMo18.10 Z6CND17.12 SUS316 316 S31600 30316 316S16 20,20a 2347
21 1Cr17Ni12Mo2 10X17H13M2T
22 0Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti 08X17H13M2T X10CrNiMoTi18.10 Z6CNDT17.12 320S31 2343
320S17 -2350
23 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti 10X17H13M2T X10CrNiMoTi18.10 Z8CNDT17.12 2350
24 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 03X17H14M2 X2CrNiMo18.10 Z2CND17.12 SUS316L 316L S31603 30316L 316S12 19,19a 2353
25 0Cr17Ni12Mo2N SUS316N 316N S31651
26 00Cr17Ni13Mo2N X2CrNiMoN18.12 Z2CND17.12 SUS316LN 316LN S31653 316S61 2375
27 0Cr18Ni12Mo2Cu2 SUS316J1
28 00Cr18Ni14Mo2Cu2 SUS316J11
29 0Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti 08X17H15M3T Z6CNDT17.13
30 1Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti 10X17H13M3T X10CrNiMoTi18.12 Z8CNDT17.13B
31 0Cr19Ni13Mo3 08X17H15M3T X5CrNiMo17.13 SUS317 317 S31700 30317 317S16 25
32 00Cr19Ni13Mo3 03X16H15M3 X2CrNiMo18.16 Z2CND19.15 SUS317L 317L S31703 317S12 24 2367
33 0Cr18Ni16Mo5 SUS317J1
34 1Cr18Ni9Ti 12X18H9T X12CrNiTi18.9 Z10CNT18.10 SUS321 321 S32100 30321 321S20 2337
35 0Cr18Ni10Ti 08X18H10T X10CrNiTi18.9 Z6CNT18.11 SUS321 321 S32100 30321 321S12 15
36 1Cr18Ni11Ti 12X18H10T 321S20
37 0Cr18Ni11Nb 08X18H12B X10CrNiNb18.9 Z6CNNb18.10 SUS347 347 S34700 30347 347S17 16 2338
38 1Cr18Ni11Nb 12X18H12B
39 0Cr18Ni9Cu3 Z6CNU18.10 SUSXM7 XM7 S30430 D32
40 0Cr18Ni13Si4 SUSXM15J1 XM15 S38100

Austenitic stainless steel, ferrite stainless steel

(Duplex stainless steel)


0Cr26Ni5Mo2 08X21H6M2T X8CrNiMo275 SUS329J1 329 S32900 2324
42 1Cr18Ni11Si4AlTi 15X18H12C4TЮ
43 1Cr21Ni5Ti 12X21H5T
44 00Cr18Ni5Mo3Si2
45 00Cr24Ni6Mo3N

ferrite stainless steel

0Cr13A1 1X12CЮ X7CrAl13 Z6CA13 SUS405 405 S40500 51405 405S17 2 2302
47 00Cr12 SUS410L
48 1Cr15 SUS429 429 S42900 51429
49 00Cr17 SUS430LX
50 1Cr17 12X7 X8Cr17 Z8C17 SUS430 430 S43000 51430 430S15 8 2320
51 Y1Cr17 X12CrMoS17 Z10CF17 SUS430F 430F S43020 51430F 8a 2383
52 1Cr17Mo X6CrMo17 Z8CD17.01 SUS434 434 S43400 51434 434S17 9c 2325
53 00Cr17Mo SUS436L
54 00Cr18Mo2 SUS444 18Cr2Mo

Martensite stainless steel

1Cr25Ti 15X25T X8Cr28 446 S44600 51446 2322
56 00Cr27Mo Z01CD26.1 SUSXM27 XM27 S44625
57 00Cr30Mo2 SUS447J1 S44700
58 1Cr12 SUS403 403 S40300 51403 403S17 2301
59 0Cr13 08X13 X7Cr13、X7Cr14 Z6C13 SUS410S 410S S41008 430S17 1
60 1Cr13 12X13 X10Cr13 Z12C13 SUS410 410 S41000 51410 410S21 3 2302
61 1Cr13Mo X15CrMo13 SUS410J1
62 Y1Cr13 X12CrS13 Z12CF13 SUS416 416 S41600 51416 416S21 7 2380
63 2Cr13 20X13 X20Cr13 Z20C13 SUS420J1 420 S42000 51420 420S37 4

Table 2 (Including European Union)

No China  GB Japan America Korea European Union India Australia China Taiwan

Austenitic stainless steel

1 1Cr17Mn6Ni5N 12Cr17Mn6Ni5N SUS201 201 S20100 STS201 1.4372 10Cr17Mn6Ni4N20 201-2 201
2 1Cr18Mn8Ni5N 12Cr18Mn9Ni5N SUS202 202 S20200 STS202 1.4373   202
3 1Cr17Ni7 12Cr17Ni7 SUS301 301 S30100 STS301 1.4319 10Cr17Ni7 301 301
4 0Cr18Ni9 06Cr19Ni10 SUS304 304 S30400 STS304 1.4301 07Cr18Ni9 304 304
5 00Cr19Ni10 022Cr19Ni10 SUS304L 304L S30403 STS304L 1.4306 02Cr18Ni11 304L 304L
6 0Cr19Ni9N 06Cr19Ni10N SUS304N1 304N S30451 STS304N1 1.4315 304N1 304N1
7 0Cr19Ni10NbN 06Cr19Ni9NbN SUS304N2 XM21 S30452 STS304N2 304N2 304N2
8 00Cr18Ni10N 022Cr19Ni10N SUS304LN 304LN S30453 STS304LN 304LN 304LN
9 1Cr18Ni12 10Cr18Ni12 SUS305 305 S30500 STS305 1.4303 305 305
10 0Cr23Ni13 06Cr23Ni13 SUS309S 309S S30908 STS309S 1.4833 309S 309S
11 0Cr25Ni20 06Cr25Ni20 SUS310S 310S S31008 STS310S 1.4845 310S 310S
12 0Cr17Ni12Mo2 06Cr17Ni12Mo2 SUS316 316 S31600 STS316 1.4401 04Cr17Ni12Mo2 316 316
13 0Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti 06Cr17Ni12Mo2Ti SUS316Ti  316Ti S31635 1.4571 04Cr17Ni12MoTi20 316Ti  316Ti
14 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 022Cr17Ni12Mo2 SUS316L 316L S31603 STS316L 1.4404 ~02Cr17Ni12Mo2 316L 316L
15 0Cr17Ni12Mo2N 06Cr17Ni12Mo2N SUS316N 316N S31651 STS316N 316N 316N
16 00Cr17Ni13Mo2N 022Cr17Ni13Mo2N SUS316LN 316LN S31653 STS316LN 1.4429 316LN 316LN
17 0Cr18Ni12Mo2Cu2 06Cr18Ni12Mo2Cu2 SUS316J1 STS316J1 316J1 316J1
18 00Cr18Ni14Mo2Cu2 022Cr18Ni14Mo2Cu2 SUS316J1L STS316J1L 316J1L
19 0Cr19Ni13Mo3 06Cr19Ni13Mo3 SUS317 317 S31700 STS317 317 317
20 00Cr19Ni13Mo3 022Cr19Ni13Mo3 SUS317L 317L S31703 STS317L 1.4438 317L 317L
21 0Cr18Ni10Ti 06Cr18Ni11Ti SUS321 321 S32100 STS321 1.4541 04Cr18Ni10Ti20 321 321
22 0Cr18Ni11Nb 06Cr18Ni11Nb SUS347 347 S34700 STS347 1.4550 04Cr18Ni10Nb40 347 347

Austenitic stainless steel, ferrite stainless steel (Duplex stainless steel)

23 0Cr26Ni5Mo2 SUS329J1 329 S32900 STS329J1 1.4477 329J1 329J1
24 00Cr18Ni5Mo3Si2 022Cr19Ni5Mo3Si2N SUS329J3L S31803 STS329J3L 1.4462 329J3L 329J3L

Ferrite stainless steel

25 0Crl3Al 06Crl3Al SUS405 405 S40500 STS405 1.4002 04Cr13 405 405
26 022Cr11Ti SUH409 409 S40900 STS409 1.4512 409L 409L
27 00Cr12 022Cr12 SUS410L STS410L 410L 410L
28 1Cr17 10Cr17 SUS430 430 S43000 STS430 1.4016 05Cr17 430 430
29 1Cr17Mo 10Cr17Mo SUS434 434 S43400 STS434 1.4113 434 434
30 022Cr18NbTi S43940 1.4509 439 439
31 00Cr18Mo2 019Cr19Mo2NbTi SUS444 444 S44400 STS444 1.4521 444 444
Martensite stainless steel
32 1Cr12 12Cr12 SUS403 403 S40300 STS403 403 403
33 1Cr13 12Cr13 SUS410 410 S41000 STS410 1.4006 12Cr13 410 410
34 2Cr13 20Cr13 SUS420J1 420 S42000 STS420J1 1.4021 20Cr13 420 420J1
35 3Cr13 30Cr13 SUS420J2 STS420J2 1.4028 30 Cr13 420J2 420J2
36 7Cr17 68Cr17 SUS440A 440A S44002 STS440A 440A 440A

Yide casting is a leading casting foundry in China, with 27 years’ experience, produces top quantity steel castings. If you are interested in our cast steel, please feel free to contact us for more details on casting.

Equivalent Grades of Gray iron and Ductile iron

This is a comparison table for the gray iron and ductile iron grades of various standards, from Yide foundry, including ISO, GB, ASTM, DIN, EN, JIS, UNI, NF, BS, IS, UNF, NBN, AS, SS, NS.


Country Standard

Equivalent Grades of Gray Iron (Grey Cast Iron)

ISO ISO 185 100 150 200 250 300 350
China GB 9439 HT100 HT150 HT200 HT250 HT300 HT350
NO.30 NO.35 NO.40
NO.50 NO.55
DIN 1691 GG10 GG15 GG20 GG25 GG30 GG35 GG40
European EN 1561 EN-GJL-100 EN-GJL-150 EN-GJL-200 EN-GJL-250 EN-GJL-300 EN-GJL-350
Japan JIS G5501 FC100 FC150 FC200 FC250 FC300 FC350
Italy UNI 5007 G10 G15 G20 G25 G30 G35
France NF A32-101 FGL150 FGL200 FGL250 FGL300 FGL350 FGL400
UK BS 1452 100 150 200 250 300 350
India IS 210 FG150 FG200 FG260 FG300 FG350 FG400
Spain UNF FG15 FG20 FG25 FG30 FG35
Belgium NBN 830-01 FGG10 FGG15 FGG20 FGG25 FGG30 FGG35 FGG40
Australia AS 1830 T150 T220 T260 T300 T350 T400
Sweden SS 14 01 O110 O115 O120 O125 O130 O135 O140
Norway NS11 100 SJG100 SJG150 SJG200 SJG250 SJG300 SJG350
Country Standard

Equivalent Grades of Ductile iron (SG Iron, Nodular Graphite Iron)
Refer to iron-foundry.com

ISO ISO 1083 400-15
450-10 500-7 600-3 700-2 800-2 900-2
China GB 1348 QT400-18 QT450-10 QT500-7 QT600-3 QT700-2 QT800-2 QT900-2
USA ASTM A536 60-40-18 60-42-10
70-50-05 80-55-06
100-70-03 120-90-02
DIN 1693 GGG40 GGG50 GGG60 GGG70 GGG80
European EN 1563 EN-GJS-400-15
EN-GJS-450-10 EN-GJS-500-7 EN-GJS-600-3 EN-GJS-700-2 EN-GJS-800-2 EN-GJS-900-2
Japan JIS G5502 FCD400 FCD450 FCD500 FCD600 FCD700 FCD800
Italy UNI 4544 GS370-17 GS400-12 GS500-7 GS600-2 GS700-2 GS800-2
France NF A32-201 FGS370-17 FGS400-12 FGS500-7 FGS600-2 FGS700-2 FGS800-2
UK BS 2789 400/17 420/12 500/7 600/7 700/2 800/2 900/2
India IS 1865 SG370/17 SG400/12 SG500/7 SG600/3 SG700/2 SG800/2
Spain UNF FGE38-17 FGE42-12 FGE50-7 FGE60-2 FGE70-2 FGE80-2
Belgium NBN 830-02 FNG38-17 FNG42-12 FNG50-7 FNG60-2 FNG70-2 FNG80-2
Australia AS 1831 300-17
500-7 600-3 700-2 800-2
Sweden SS 14 07 0717-02 0727-02 0732-03 0737-01 0864-03
Norway NS11 301 SJK-400.3
SJK-500 SJK-600 SJK-700 SJK-800

AISI 1070 SAE UNS G10700 Carbon Steel Foundry

China’s steel foundry produces AISI 1070 SAE UNS G10700 carbon steel castings. In the following, we will be divided into various parts to introduce you to the chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties of the material, as well as the equivalent material grade.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of AISI 1070 carbon steel is outlined in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe ~ 98
Carbon, C 0.65 – 0.75
Manganese, Mn 0.60 – 0.90
Sulfur, S 0.050 (max)
Phosphorous, P 0.04 (max)

Physical Properties

The physical properties of AISI 1070 carbon steel are tabulated below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.7-8.03 g/cm3 0.278-0.290 lb/in³

Mechanical Properties

The following table shows mechanical properties of cold drawn AISI 1070 carbon steel.

Properties Metric Imperial
Elastic modulus 190-210 GPa 29700-30458 ksi
Poisson’s ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of AISI 1070 carbon steel are given in the following table.

Properties Conditions
T (ºC) Treatment
Thermal expansion co-efficient 11.8 x (10-6/ ºC) 0 – 100

Other Designations

Other designations that are equivalent to AISI 1070 carbon steel includes: AMS 5115, AMS 5115C, ASTM A29 (1070), ASTM A510 (1070), ASTM A576 (1070), ASTM A682 (1070), ASTM A713 (1070), ASTM A830, MIL S-11713, MIL S-12504, SAE J1397 (1070), SAE J403 (1070), SAE J412 (1070), DIN 1.1231, SS 1770, SS 1778, AFNOR XC 68.